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This book is a comprehensive guide to the International Phonetic Alphabet, whose aim is to provide a universally agreed system of notation for the sounds of languages, and which has been widely used for over a century. The Handbook presents the basics of phonetic analysis so that the principles underlying the Alphabet can be readily understood, and gives examples of the use of each of the phonetic symbols. The application of the Alphabet is then demonstrated in nearly 30 'Illustrations' - concise analyses of the sound systems of a range of languages, each of them accompanied by a phonetic transcription of a passage of speech. The Handbook also includes the 'Extensions' to the Alphabet, covering speech sounds beyond the sound-systems of languages, and a listing of the internationally agreed computer codings for phonetic symbols. It is an essential reference work for all those involved in the analysis of speech.
In the rapidly growing field of African literature in French, writing by women has largely been ignored. This book, the first comprehensive study of women's writing in francophone sub-Saharan Africa, redressess the critical imbalance and celebrates the originality of this fascinating new literature.
The recent rise of Francophone studies within French studies has created the need for a one-volume exploration of the range of expression in the French language following the colonial period. Francophone Post-Colonial Cultures collects discussions of literary texts and cultural identity from Europe, North Africa, the Caribbean, and South Asia--regions of the world that seem to have only the French language in common. Despite enormous differences among all the countries where French is spoken, Francophone literatures tend to deal with a similar spread of issues. This volume positions the study of the Francophone world and its cultures as a comparative project, in which post-colonial Francophone cultures and the specific alterity of these cultures emerge as inextricable from and essential to an understanding of modern France. Organized by region, boasting an international roster of contributors, and including summaries of selected creative and critical works and a guide to selected terms and figures, Francophone Post-Colonial Cultures is an ideal resource for scholars of French literature and advanced students looking to read beyond the French literary canon.
Republican Principles in International Law considers the fundamental requirements of a just world order, as applied to public international law. The republican principles of deliberation, popular sovereignty and the public good first formed and justified the law of nations two centuries ago. They still clarify the most contested legal question and explain why people and states should obey international law. This book sets the standard for legitimate government, both within and beyond the jurisdiction of separate states and nations.
This easy-to-understand explanation of major aspects of today's telecommunications systems aims to give readers comprehensive coverage of the four major areas of telephone systems - station apparatus, transmission, switching and signalling. While maintaining all the fundamental information from the earlier editions, this revised and updated edition includes a perspective on telephony that includes central office, local loop, subscriber loop carrier, switching, multiplexing, LATA, signalling and network architecture. It also includes developments in fibre optic systems, information on PCS systems including GSM, TDMA, CDMA and policy implications of the US Telecommunications Act of 1996.
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